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tv   American Politics  CSPAN  July 25, 2011 12:30am-2:00am EDT

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vietnam war, right up through about 1980. >> as another way to document our country through time, the library of congress has a large number of journalists' papers. >> these are trained observers who often keep diaries or write letters to their colleagues about what they observed and saw. so it's a very valuable collection for documenting events in u.s. history. >> journalists like horace gree lee, joseph pew lits -- pulitzer, katherine graham. >> in terms of women journal ists, one of the more recent was those of mary mcward, a pulitzer prize winning
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journalist, she was writing as the 9/11 attack unfolded. she has tuesday, 9:55. lower manhattan, second plane from back side of tower. half-hour after first attack. not since oklahoma city. white house evacuated. south tower collapsed. >> other divisions of the library also made efforts to preserve the 9/11 experience. >> we try to find ways where the present is echoing the past. so we will look for the national events, for example, the september 11 terrorist attacks. that was a major event in the in united states history. so we had a conscious, targeted acquisition to go out and gather in, whether it was
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photographs, fine print, comic or cartoon. >> preserving the past, especially in times of international conflict takes on a special interest in the map division. >> maps are very important in either preparing for conflict or as a report on conflict. >> this is an interesting map of utah, it's a raised relief map made on foam rubber. made to be carried. it was used to brief officers, commanders prior to d-day, prior to the land, in normandy. it was 1r58 usual because you could see and feel where the ledge rows were, these numbers apparently indicated what kind of load, whether it was support -- whether it would support tanks, these roads, or not. every individual building, the fortifications, most of which
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had been bombed out prior to the landing. in contrast to the landings at omaha beach, only 200 people lost their lives here. at the end of the first day, you had about 24,000 troops onboard. so the mass i loss of life on this beach didn't happen and it possibly could have had something to do with having materials like this available to the commanders ahead of time. >> it also includes maps, like okinawa landing features in 1944. this is an island in the okinawa chain. you can see it's broken down into landing zones, a, b, c, d, e. this map shows the profile of each of the landing zones. the importance behind this, this was done by the under water demolition, the navy under water demolition team the
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forerunner of the navy seals. this was mapped completely under water. ships swim in to shore under water and map the terrain on the bottom, including the height of coral. it was very, very important information for allied planners. >> the map creates a frame. i've been to bookstores and looked at new writings on revolutionary war or civil war conflict, and i leaf through them quickly and look for a map, how can you talk about a conflict if you don't know where it took place. >> in 1676, the continental forces under washington rode across the delaware river. and succeeded in attacking the hessians. one week later, there was a second battle, called the battle of princeton. on december 31, 1776.
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general cadwaller sent a young spy into princeton, new jersey, home of princeton university. the spy returns from the city and provides the information that is depicted on this map. this is the building, the college of new jersey, the first name for princeton, university. these little guys are cannons which are pointing south. these little guys are field pieces or cannons pointing north. there's also some field pieces pointing west. in other words, the town is heavily defended by cannons. there's also a note here, saying 100 men are at this bridge. there's a note here, that says just this morning, 100 men started erecting earthworks. this is realtime information. the spy went in and observed
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this information, came back, provided the information to the general. the general made this map, sent it on to general washington. the most interesting portion about the map, however, is this note. essentially what it says is there's this nice road that leads around the back of town and it's undefended. so what washington did in attacking princeton, he sent some of his forces against the town, sent the remaining forces around the back of town. the british realized the gig was up, they ran away. this map was instrumental in the strategy involved in the attack on princeton on january 1, 1777. >> other in the manuscript division, the collections about war include official documents. >> this is the order to drop the atomic bomb.
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it was sent from washington outlining the plan of action to secretary of war general stinson. it was called operation center board, the atomic bombing of japan. and this pink cable is the answer to the yellow cable through chief of staff of the army, george c. marshall, authorizing the air force to go ahead with the atomic bombing. >> the history of civil rights in this country is preserved in the library of congress in several ways. most prominently in the papers of the national association for the advancement of colored people, founded in 1909. >> the naacp records are the largest single collection ever acquired by the library and annually the most heavily used. those are enhanced by the personal papers of such prominent activists such as
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thurgood marshall, robert l. carter, herbert hill, arthur stangard, joseph rowe, most recently james foreman, edward w. brooks, patricia roberts harris, just to name a few. >> but some of the civil rights records come from less obvious collections. >> ansel adams, perhaps the biggest household name of a photographer in the united states still. ansel adams wrote a letter to the library of congress, he said, i have these photographs that show the relocation camp back in the 1940's. would you be interested. we said thank you pretty fast. a photographer usually associated with majestic landscape views, his empathy for the people in the camp, his skill with portraiture, but it's also a very complicated subject matter.
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so a picture of people playing softball inside a war relocation camp, it is a wakeup moment, an aha moment, but also a what is going on here? were people unhappy or satisfied? how was life able to continue if you're locked up? how did you keep going? what was going to happen after the camp? >> not surprisingly, the library of congress keeps a history of some of the noted people who were elected to represent their countries in -- their country in both the house of representatives and senate. >> they have a special place here in the the library. we are the library of congress and we have about 900 collections ranging from that first continental congress through women like patsy makse
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who served in congress until her death in 2002. >> the papers of claire booth louis are housed here, as are those from rulte hannah mccormick symms. but the bulk of the papers are from men, including senator taft, with thousands of itesms from 1900's. all the way back to josiah bartlett who served in the continental congress. the contents of all these collections have a -- had a life before coming to the library of congress but once they arrive, the path to being ready for public view can be a long and sometimes surprising road. >> this is behind the scenes. we get collections from donors, very often the collections are stored in attics or basements or sometimes even barns. >> in this room, they are delivered and put out on tables
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and in a sense, the collections, if they're not born here, they're mid wifed here and eventually they're made available to the reading public. >> there's been some odd things uncovered. pieces of wedding cake and just all kinds of things that people clear out their file cabinet or their closets. >> for example, the papers of air force general bernard shrever arrived here. he was responsible for the development of the intercontinental ballistic missile. >> it appear he is use this folder on airplanes because he continues his notes on airplane nap kins and i guess he needed more paper because he used the airsickness bag to continue his notes. these are the kinds of oddities we deal with in the source of processing. >> it can be like looking for a
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need until a hay stack. not taking things for which there is no room but protecting and processing the things to be saved for future generations. >> what i like about them, about the personal papers, is that in these records you have the personal and professional side of an individual. yet there are -- there are executive documents, executive orders, official correspondence, the essence of what they did 9:00 to 5:00, then you have the other side of these people. >> the papers of president theodore roosevelt oare a -- an example of this. in 4izz diary a look at how he dealt with immense personal tragedy. >> his wife had given birth to their daughter that day. but had died in childbirth. to just simply compound the trauma, his mother had been living with them in that house. she died in the house the same
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day. he lost his wife and mother on the same kay. you see a black x and note by him, the light has gone out of my life. as you turn the pages over, going about thee pages, he wrote the event that happened on that day that produced the black x. so indeed, a black x is well justified. he goes on to say, for better or worse, his life has been lived out. he was a little on the romantic and emotional side. this was -- his life wasn't lived out. he went on to great things. >> it helps people to see that individuals are complicated individuals that have had great espare in their lives. their hopes, their fears, all in their personal papers. this is a diary from 1852.
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it's one of those diaries where the individual is just pouring out their ener most emotions. she's writing very small print and she's saying that for some reason, i have found it extremely hard to restrain the tears today and would have given almost anything to have been alone and undisturbed. i have seldom felt more friendless and i believe i ever feel enough so. i see less and less in the world to live for and in spite of my resolution and reason and moral courage and everything else, i grow more and more weary and impatient. i know it is wicked and perhaps foolish but i cannot help it. there's not a living thing but would be better off without me. i contribute to the happiness of not a single object and
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often to the unhappy -- unhappyness of many and always my own for i am never happy. you read this and say, who was this person? claire barton. 1852. if she had ever acted on these emotions, these clearly suicidal kinds of emotions from depression, she would not have come to the aid of all those soldiers during the civil war, the angel of the battlefield. she wouldn't have been there to found the red cross and all the good works that organization did during her lifetime. you see another side to people when you look at their personal painers. they dispel the stereotypes of people and see another side of them. you understand somebody's motivation, the baggage they brought with them, the -- it's -- you just don't get that from
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just the official documents that might be within the agency records. >> we'll return to our feature documentary in a moment. for more information on the library of congress, including a brief history, a quiz and links to other resources, go to of congress. get your own copy of the library of congress: behind the scenes at the world's largest library. it's only $14.95 for the d.v.d. and $29.95 for blu-ray. plus shipping and handling. order now at >> if you want to be informed about what is happening in the world, particularly in america and the congress, it's not so hard. c-span has a digital online archive that goes back to 1987 where you can basically watch
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anything that happened in the house or senate chambers right there on your screen. there are sources of information that were unimaginable 20 years ago. >> the c-span video library makes it easy to follow washington with instant access to events from the white house, committee rooms and the house and senate chambers. all searchable, shareable and free. the peabody award winning c-span video library, it's washington your way. and now we return to our feature documentary on the lie bare of congress. -- library of congress. >> part of this building, the main reading room, it's just a combination of inspiration all around you, when i was a graduate student sitting in the reading room that magnificent reading room, it was a wonderful setting that promoted
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learning and education. just a great space. it was a wonderful place to work as a student. whatever you seemed to be doing somehow seemed much more important all of a sudden. >> it makes you look up and then look down in a book. and there aren't many places you can look up and feel the expanse, feel the inspiration, and then look up at the wonderful mural overlooking the center of the main reading room. >> 160 feet from floor to the crown of the domed ceiling, where the painting by edwin blatchfield looks down on readers. >> that figure removing the veil of ignorance from human understanding, that's an american invention. that's not a classical figure.
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but it's sort of classical in what it's all about. it happens in an atmosphere of inspiration and at the same time demands a lot of perspiration to get through those books. >> a particular design element in the main reading room, the sight line from the visitor's gallery to the coupe la. you can't see the mural if you're in the visitor's gallery. you're only privileged to see her if you're down in the reading room down below. you're not privileged to see her if you're just a visitor. >> on the collar of the dome, a ring of 12 seated figures, representing 12 nations. america is represented as an engineer, with a hand under its chin, trying to solve a problem of mechanics. it's no coincidence it looks
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like lincoln. >> we in america thank you very much all past civilizations but basically, the future is ours. we thank you but we are looking ahead. >> some of the light in the room comes through stained glass windows, but these are no ordinary windows. here amidst european designs, the imprint of america has been stamped. >> there are 48 states and territories represented on them but a number were still ter toys in 1897. each of the big semicircular windows. there are fields of -- seals of the states franking the seal of the u.s. -- flanking the seal of the u.s. you have eight allegorical female figures in plaster at the upper level of the reading room, representing the highest pursuits of the human mind.
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art, philosophy, history, law, and then on the balustrade at the next level down, bronze statues, two in each bay. >> they make a triangle to the female figure up above. if you see two bronze statues next to each other, they don't relate to each other but to the female figure beside them. art is flanked by michelangelo
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and bay tovep on the other side. the other great feature of the room that a lot of people miss, because it's at the entrance, the great clock by john flanagan. it's not just to tell you what time it is, it is to advise you to be mindful of your time and use it well and we're all here only for a certain period. so as my grandfather would say, make hay while the sunshines. >> the theme of european art mixed with american history is also prevalent on the outside
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of the building. >> at the crown, at the top of the dome, over the main reading room, there is a great golden flame, we call it the torch of knowledge, sometimes they use the latin word for it, and is the symbol of the active mind. you see images of actively burning flames, torches, lamps, all through the library, you know, which might seem odd for an institution that had had two disastrous fires in 1814 and in 1851. but it's not about destructive fire, it's about creative fire. and it's to inspire. when you enter the building as you're supposed to, as the architects and designers and sculptors planned going up the
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great staircase, you experience the facade of the building. the three archways that represent art, science, and literature that you go through. i think the most beautiful thing and especially if the light is right are those bronze doors. they represent the three great revolutions in the transmission of human knowledge. you have speech, you have writing, and you have printing. that is the three great re-lutions as of 1897. we now say we've had a fourth revolution and we need an electronic doorway because that has happened. >> in the circumstance la area above the door, it's a mother and child and four men. it's a mother and child, that's
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where learning begins, at your mother's knee. among the people around them, a native american, chief joseph, i think the first positive representation of a native american in a federal building, a u.s. government building. >> the italian classical mood of the library of congress building is established well before the front door. greeting visitors at the curb is the neptune fountain. >> here you have neptune, the great sea god, surrounded by his court and all these sea animals and beasties.
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>> washington -- this is like our trevi fountain, it's drawn from many sources, but also symbolizing plenty and the richness of life because water is a nurturing thing. and necessary to human life. >> the neptune fountain is 140 feet long, almost 1/3 of the length of the entire building. making your way around the building, you'll encounter some unusual looking carved faces. >> you have these ethnological heads as the keystone over the windows on the principal floor around the building. they were developed by a man named otis mason, head of the bureau of ethnology at the smithsonian. they represent the races of the world.
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>> there are a total of 33 ethnological heads. the 1902 official handbook said the work is, quote, one of the most scientifically accurate series of racial models ever made. >> they could be represented that specifically and that it would be appropriate to do so is something that would be frowned upon today. >> like so much of the rest of the library of congress, there are aspects of the architecture reminiscent of european masterpieces. >> the figures in the windows, the circumstance already lar windows, in the front of the jefferson building probably are inspired by the paris opera where you have similar windows with the busts of composers, musicians, and so when they came to do the library of congress, they adopted that motif, except here we have
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authors instead of composers. front and center, you have benjamin franklin, who is of course -- who of course fit there is perfectly as an author and publisher but also maybe his pride of place comes from his contributions as well as a statesman and a scientist. >> the other writers are poet and esayist ralph waldo emerson, washington irving, author of "rip vanwinkle" and "the legend of sleepy hollow," thomas babington mccauley, a british politician and writer whose most names work was a history of england published in 1848. nathaniel hawthorne who published the scarlet letter in 1850 and sir walter scott, the scottish write evers whose works included "ivanhoe," "rob
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roy" and "the lady of the lake." standing in front of the building in the evening, you can see the busts back lit from the lights in the great hall. and from the inside, the western evening sky of washington as well as the washington monument serve as the back drop. >> congress has always needed information. when they were in philadelphia and new york, there were libraries. they had a wonderful collection. when they got to washington, d.c., there were battlefields. there were no libraries.
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what they had to do was create a library. the actual creation came in a bill signed by president john adams. he found a place in the northwest corner of the capitol building. >> they build the rotunda, they built the library of congress along the west front of the capital between the senate and the house chambers. for many years, the west front of the capital was the library of congress. >> by 1814, the library of congress held about 3000 volumes. most of which were destroyed. >> in 1814, british troops marched on maryland avenue and they burned down the capitol building.
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>> thomas jefferson read about it in the newspaper. he offered to sell the library -- to sell to the library his own book collection. >> it turned out that he needed the money at the time. he was a very eclectic collector. he believed that you had to study philosophy, foreign languages, he had a huge number of books that were poetry and english literature. >> it was very flattering to congress. if you were going to govern this new country, you need to have books on all subjects. >> that created some controversy in the house of representatives. should we have books in foreign languages? spending the money on? jefferson himself. part of it was personal. there were some people who just would not vote for it because it came from jefferson.
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>> in the end, the house voted 71-61 to buy his library. 6487 volumes or just under $24,000. >> in 1870, congress did the single best thing ever did for the library of congress when it passed the newly expanded copyright act. it was a requirement that every new book needed to be copyrighted. if you look at the statistics, the library of congress grew enormously starting in the 1870's. they still have the same amount of space. books just stacked up. >> by 1872, the library of congress had 246,000 volumes. no work to keep them. all attempts to get the library
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of building of its own failed. it may have been begun country's desire to outshine europe, it finally tipped the scales. after the civil war, a lot of americans went abroad. they have a certain national pride that they've brought back. they wanted a building that showed the american commitment to education and to college. when they came back, they were attuned to building a brand new structure. >> the congressional debate began. it brings people together from very different backgrounds will look at things very differently. they work as unlike as any two people serving.
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he had been an anti-slavery man and then a republican. he had been a copperhead during the war. they did not go together, but they served on the committee on the library. they both believe that he needed to have a proper library. they carried their colleagues along with them. >> in 1886, president grover cleveland signed a bill authorizing the building. construction began the following year. the architect was thomas lincoln casey of the u.s. army corps of engineers.
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>> he is famous in washington for getting us out of two architectural messes. one was the old executive office building. the more famous achievement was completing the washington monument. >> general casey was also successful with the library of congress. as shown here in these photos taken by the nephew of mathew brady.
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>> the outside of the building was completed in 1893. general casey brought in his son, edward, to design the interior. >> they had this idea of adding these american decorators until the building was practically finished. >> they started assembling the teams of artists, painters, sculptors. it is all pretty much done between 1892 and 1897. part of the reason they were able to do that is a lot of these artists are coming off of it working in chicago where they had to create this amazing city from plaster and whatever. they learned how to triage in terms of creating these remarkable combinations of sculptures and architecture.
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>> the building was open to the public in the early 1890's 7. in the end, it consisted of 400,000 cubic feet of granite, 3,000 tons of iron steel, and 70,000 barrels of cement. >> one of the things that appeal to congress was general casey out-europed europe. as one of the key emblems of his reign. and what it could accomplish and how important the arts were. and what happens with the jefferson building of the library of congress is that it becomes an emblem of what we can do. we are players on the world's cultural scene.
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when they were finally given the choice in the middle 1880s, congress went for the $6 million version. >> we are standing in the entrance to the exhibition which features the reconstruction of thomas jefferson's personal book collection. the collection that he sold to the united states government in 1815. this is a very famous collection in colonial america. after his presidency, it was
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quite common for people to travel to his collection. it takes somebody with jefferson, with the opportunity to be in france and bring materials back that made this so large. he designed the library that would allow him to sit at the center of a circle, and organize it into 44 tractors and subjects, built around a notion he had pulled from the enlightenment of memory, reason, and imagination. these are perfect examples of his approach to self education. this is a collective work in latin that has been broken apart by a bookbinder and enter and leave with a spanish translation of the same work and then rebound. jefferson created his own bilingual text to teach and sell spanish.
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further down is ancient, and then modern history. his politics section is crowded with american authors, including himself. the entire campaign prior to the revolution was there. much of the discussion about constitution with madison and adams is present as well. >> his library is part of the collection, which encompasses both books and objects spanning thousands of years. as>> it is one of are prized possessions. for europe, it is the first piece. >> during the depression, congress paid on million dollars to purchase a variety of 15 century items, including the gutenberg bible.
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>> it was a moment when we have moved away from the medieval world and moved toward the renaissance. >> it is one of the first items that greets visitors and the jefferson building. >> another famous bible is the one that president lincoln used in his inauguration. >> lincoln was on his way of moving to washington. >> president obama used this bible for his 2009 swearing in. >> there have been other request for bibles. there was a very famous event a few years ago and which the first modern day muslim member of congress asked to use the koran from thomas jefferson's collection for a ceremony.
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>> including the contents of his pockets on the 90 was assassinated. >> the only currency you was carrying was a $5 confederate bill, a couple of pairs of glasses, a small wallet that contained numerous news clippings. it is a moment in his life that it's captured. he had been further south of washington. did he carry it with them to remind him of the struggle? all of these questions. it also marks a moment of his assassination. much in the way that his life marks the sort of moment of his presidency and america is moving forward.
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a life mask -- he had developed a technique that made it more comfortable to sit under a plaster and allow the process to speed up. >> the rare books collection contains many literary items, including collections of walt whitman and henry david thoreau. >> walt whitman mets with henry david thoreau once. their meeting had been arranged for them in brooklyn by mutual friends. thoreau is on details of discovering a work of his own. >> then they went for a walk. >> this is commemorated in these two books.
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you find in walt whitman's copy about his signature a brief note that says, i met him in brooklyn on such and such a day. he seemed in good health and talked about the book that he was doing. i gave him a copy of my "leaves of grass." >> he was searching the collection to prepare some items for exhibition. >> i found this second edition of walt whitman. i thought, that is really terrific. henry david thoreau's handwriting. it is still a very important -- when i turned around and noticed a book sitting in the middle of the walt whitman collection. i said, what is this?
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i discovered this very grandiose signature and this package and it took a minute for me to realize that sitting across from each other and the shells of the library of congress were actual books that had exchanged hands between them. they had been facing each other all these years. they had gone off into separate collections and they both came back to the library of congress and they were there just waiting to meet each other again. >> what was that moment of discovery like? >> to be honest, i started to cry. it is a recognition of time and important moment of american poetry. every time i walked into this vault, i am reminded of time and a period of great struggle. standing right here, next to
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manuscripts from the 13th and 14th centuries. logs, copies, every book popular in the 19th century about abraham lincoln. on this side, books that are famous for their bindings. there are a million stories. sometimes very poetic, sometimes very sad, but sometimes very mundane. it is there. the third reich collection came to the library at the end of world war ii. it was an allied commission did it on the responsibility of dealing with materials that had been captured by the nazis. the objective was to return to rightful owners of those
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materials which had been stolen. books that were clearly part of hitler's own world came to the library of congress. i wanted us to look at it for many reasons. this sort of pervasiveness of the movement. it had gone to the point where it had been translated into this very large text. another is to keep the connection to another's library and to understand what is really being documented. by those that surrounded him. by those who were managing his administration. >> the care of this and all the collections and the library is the work of the preservation division. the collection, the most valuable asset of a library.
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they are also very fragile. we have a very large conservation tradition here. as well as a division devoted to binding. >> we have a responsibility of creating an environment that is safe for books that are hundreds of years old. we also have a responsibility to save materials that are in danger. >> occasionally, we have to do intervention. we have to go and and do an operation on a collection. our conservation division is sort of like a book hospital. >> we are trying to stabilize the material so that we do not have a problem that is going to grow. we might see it as a triage area and a hospital. if something is what, before we can do anything to it, one of our techniques is to use a freezer.
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we can stop time said that if something is wet, mold cannot grow. >> besides freezing, there is also vacuuming. >> they can be housed in folders and boxes and safely returned. >> one of the type of intervention of treatments that we often have to do that always amazes people is washing the document. how can you possibly wash a document? this is a page from one of george washington's childhood educational exercise books. what you see us doing is using an enzyme solution to remove the paper and the adhesive that were applied to its in 1898.
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it is important that we did this because while those materials were a good quality when they were applied, time has not been kind to them. >> we are going to give the enzymes a few minutes to do their jobs on top of this. this is water, but there is no water coming into contact with the manuscript at this time. >> the enzyme has done its work. changehifting over to all polyester whipping which
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supports the documents. we're going to put it on and send it into the washroom. this is draining away the last few drops before she places the page. it would be removed and drained briefly and placed between a fresh polyester web. >> much more sophisticated means are being developed to allow scientists to look much closer at the library's rare items.
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and find out more about them. >> this is a plate inside an environmental microscope. the doors opened and it is a microscope that uses electrons. to make images. unlike a light microscope, this can go up to 100,000 times magnification. we can see tiny particles of ink. you can take all of these images, all of this chemical information, without doing any damage to the object. >> these technologies have extraordinary opportunities for us. the offer as extraordinary opportunities to investigate materials that we have never been able to before. >> the director oversees one special group of materials. that is the group that is called the library's top treasures. we have a vault. we currently have a process under way to look at these treasures more closely.
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we are using some of the latest imaging technologies. to see if we can find unique identifiers on these special collections. in doing this process, it is really been an active discovery for us. normally, when you photograph something, you illuminate it with as much light as possible. >> we are seeing things beyond what you can see when you look at something in normal lighting. things that are hidden from us in normal lighting. >> we actually found there was a thumb and three fingers right where you would fold the page.
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>> there are no records of its actual fingerprints. >> we should be able to take dna and and start to say, we know that it was lincoln. >> they use the same technology on it. this is the first draft of the declaration of independence. >> in looking at the manuscript, we saw an area that was slightly blurred. looking at this more closely, our scientists began to speculate that what looked like a small edge under the word "citizen" might actually be a word in and of itself that jefferson chose to obliterate while the ink was still wet.
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with respect to letting on what -- we were speculating on what the words might be. patriots? we were fortunate enough to have a tour by the madison council. they are a donor group of the library of congress who advises them. we will often ask, what do you think this might be? one of the participants said, she thought it looked like the word "subjects." that was one of those moments where a chill went through all this because it seemed so right and so logical. this was the moment that jefferson might have changed his mind. we were no longer subjects, we were citizens. just speculating was not good enough. by doing continued elaborate examinations, i think we finally have nailed it.
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as it turns out, this entire section is not even in the final version of the declaration of independence. >> the library of congress is using new technology to learn about the past. but more critical to the library today isto get as much of its content digitized and online. >> it has nearly 50 million items and we have about one and a quarter million items online already. >> less than 10% of the total. >> the hardest part of digitalization is not getting carried away. we have taken a very practical approach. we are not a high-end graphic arts house. i know that press to its people
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-- frustrates people at times. we are using the digitizing to try to get as many pictures as possible on line. >> the online catalog includes descriptions about all the collections. even things that are not digitized get. you may find a lot of group descriptions four sets of photographs. you know they exist, but you might not be able to see them on line. but you should be able to know they are here. >> to see the originals, you would have to travel to washington. even if you do, not all the collections are open to the public. for example, we agreed to restrict access to papers for a very good reasons. there is a long history of people destroying things. >> we do not want put ourselves in a position of determining who should or should not see a collection. we are a public institution.
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we hope to have these materials as successful as possible. but we also know sometimes the only way you are going to be sure of the preservation of these materials is if you agree sometimes to a temporary restriction. >> can you give me of an example? >> alexander haig. >> his papers are restricted until five years after his death. those become available in 2015. we have henry kissinger's papers here. they have the same kind of restriction. >> we are not talking about that many collections that are restricted. they are ones that might common sense would tell most people>> there is probably some kind of restriction. it is not the entire collection. it is only certain parts that are not open. >> research libraries are often stereotyped as vaults.
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the fort knox of knowledge. we keep the books, but you are not supposed to touch them. same with the photographs. as soon as you are a librarian, exactly the opposite is true. the whole purpose for keeping and preserving is to get the information back out to people. to encourage research, to encourage exploration of the past. the best example is the fact that the library decided to archive twitter. we were laughed at for asking to do so. but it is the role goods of history. in 25 or 100 years,this very message -- that way of expressing our opinion, if we can have that for people to look back at and understand, what people care about or thought about, i think it will be very helpful to the future. it is not just about us pulling stuff in and holding it close, it needs to be used by people. it is a working collection. it is not just us and giving
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its back. it is the rate is that people bring out there asking their questions. someone will come and study are photographs and they will write a book. new ideas are bubbling up to the surface. >> we are the world's largest library, but we're also the home to the extraordinary objects that have come to us through the great generosity of collectors and for donors and to the government and have accumulated debt of come to rest two presidents. our goal is to make sense of them and to make them available. make sure that the stories daylight's the people learned to -- stay alive, that people learn to work with them, to gain new and different inside. -- insights. the american people are very fortunate that they have this as part of their heritage. it is made available to anybody
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who comes to the reading room. you sit at the table and you can experience this. it is access to information that makes democracy. [captioning performed by national captioning institute] [captions copyright national cable satellite corp. 2011] >> for information on the library of congress, including a brief history, a quiz, and links to other resources, go to c- you can watch any of our original the to mentor is on line as well. just click on the name of the documentary you want to watch. get your own copy of "the library of congress" for 14.95
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for the dvd or $29.95 for the blu-ray. you can order online. >> coverage of political affairs, non-fiction books, and american history, available on television, on radio, and on line. finder content any time through the video library. and we go on the road with our content vehicle, bringing resources to your community. it is washington your way, now available in more than 100 million homes. created by cable, provided as a public service. >> next, a former louisiana governor buddy roemer announces his candidacy for president. then, the state of national parks. then, the impact of arab political protests.
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former louisiana governor buddy roemer launched his campaign for the republican presidential campaign thursday at dartmouth college in new hampshire. he wants to stop unfair trade and end the use of special interest money in washington. this is about 40 minutes. >> we are about to kick off. i hope this does not mean anything for our campaign, but i noticed a sign when i walked in that had memorial services 5:00 p.m. >> i am a methodist so i don't believe in those kind of signs that it was tumbling. are we ready? today i ran for president of united states of america. i run to prepare america to grow jobs again.
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beginning with the elimination of our tolerance for unfair foreign trade practices and the use of our own tax code to ship jobs overseas. i run to reveal and challenge the control of the special interests over our nation's capital and demonstrate the freedom to leave that can only come from refusing their money. i run as a proud republican but an even broader american. i believe in america, its values and future. r a nation at risk and neither the president nor any other candidates for this office addresses are as solutions for the two major problems facing america. one is on fair trade which is stealing our best jobs, stop and economic growth, causing us
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to slowly sink under a mountain of debt while we attempt to maintain our standard of living by borrowing rather than working. yet no one mentions unfair trade for a solution for the problem, no one. which leads to the second on mentioned a problem. special interest campaign donations which own washington, d.c., turning it to a corrupt institution where fat cat special interest checks or write the tax code, the health care reform, and bank reform mcorp but profits are at an all- time high. these same corporations are sending american jobs overseas, causing fear and pain among the families of millions of our neighbors.
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in short, the guys with the big checks don't want reform or change. they've never had it so good. that is why no one running for president talks about solving the problem. on fair trade, stealing our best jobs, institutional corruption or of washington, d.c. -- they need the money to win. i run for president by accepted no pac money, no contribution over $100 per person and full disclosure no matter what the size of the gift, $5 or $75. we must break the stranglehold of special interests on a tax code you cannot lead, a budget that will never be balanced, debt that cannot be repaid, and the reform of wall street banks who live by their greed and illegal activities. health care reform that does not
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drive down the cost and we send american jobs overseas day after day. there's only one way to get control of our country away from the special interests -- don't take their blood money. don't take their pac money. don't take their bundled the money. the president must be free to challenge and change washington and our current president -- he is raising $1 billion while in office with my of it coming from wall street corporations and individuals he is supposed to regulate. the price tag is $35,000 per ticket. too big to fail is still on the books. manufacturing jobs are fewer than 10 percent now in america. made in america is a label that has disappeared.
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unemployed and underemployed seem permanent now at 20% +. we have fewer jobs and they pay less and china is having the greatest boom in history and we are paying for it. we need trading jobs but the trade must be fair for both nations suffer. on fair trade uses child labor, prison labor, work without standards, work without environmental scorecards, and pirates the very design and products and plants that come into their nation. these unfair trade practices have cost us millions of our best jobs over the last 20 years, not just the last two, causing untold pain and anxiety and families across america and our leaders have done nothing
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but talk about the wonders of free trade, a so-called free trade has killed us. trade must be fair first, then free. american presidents starting with george washington a pet -- protected american manufacturing jobs from predatory trade practices for more than 160 years. this is not a radical idea. this is what built america. it worked again after world war two for germany and japan, both of whom refused free trade. they protected their jobs. germany is now the largest economy in europe and japan is number two on earth. we must protect our best jobs from unfair trade and from u.s. companies who move jobs overseas using our own tax code to pay for it. they are free to do it. but we should not have to pay for it.
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we can protect our critical jobs without the general use of taxes, which although successful, tend to be overly political in their formulation and application. as a first step, as a substitute for that strategy, i would amend the tax code to disallow any tax deductions for expenditures for any goods produced or services located outside the united states. don't bring up the problem of call centers. companies can still do it but we taxpayers will not pay for it. section #162 and 212 of the internal revenue code among others would be so amended. next, i would eliminate the foreign tax credit blue paul. -- loophole. that is section 27a of the tax code whereby large corporations and wealthy individuals avoid
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u.s. taxes by moving their businesses and investment out of the country. they are protected as united states citizens but they don't pay their fair share of tax for that privilege. example number one -- general electric made $5 billion in profit last year in the u.s. and paid zero federal income tax. this will stop. finally, i would require a fair trade adjustment form to the company imports. this form which the economic difference necessary to bring the imports of manufacturing process up to minimum american standard's. this difference will be paid by the importer as with the cost of. of adjustments under fair trading nations -- on fair trading in nations will lose their advantage. the fair competitor will suffer no ill effect.
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trade will grow but it will be fair. these few changes would affectively generate millions of american jobs, restoring needed growth in our lagging economy. there is much we need to do. we need to deregulate small business so it can grow again, that's for jobs come from. we need to be energy independence and create 1 million new jobs. we need to reduce federal spending by 1% of gross domestic product per year for five years consecutively. we need immigration reform that seals the border but allows legal immigration. it is important to america. we need tax reform that lowers the marginal rate with simplicity. there is much we need to do but the place to start is with the money and unfair trade and no one is speaking about either of them. , no one. we must break the stranglehold
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of special interest money on our political system so that we can address the hole in the economy caused by unfair trade for which our best jobs slip away. we must seal all and restore manufacturing jobs. this growth is essential to paying the debt. we won't do it any other way and getting out of this financial trap in which we find ourselves -- it is the special interests who use unfair trade and self- written tax loophole to make their fortunes and steal our futures. $100 limit -- now pac money -- full disclosure -- free to leave is the key. no one else can sell these two problems because they need the special interest money. all i need is you.
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i need 5 million americans out of 310 million to make this happen. stand with me. www. buddy, you don't want to miss this campaign. it will be something else. i am no one. i am a former governor, a former congressman, a successful community banker who returned to politics after 16 years in have the private life. -- in have the private life. -- in happy private life. and here to confront the corruption in washington and a manufacturing base so critical to the economic health of our great nation. this is a loss of jobs that stems in part from the unfair trading practices of some nations and the deliberate
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manipulation of our tax code by some multinational corporations. i am no one but i challenge the system. it is corrupt. it is not working. i am 67. i am old enough to know what to do and young enough to get it done. these are times that require bold action and fierce determination. i will do my part but i have deliberately chosen a path requiring the help of many because that is the way to win and more importantly, that is the way to get these mighty things done him after the election. stand with me against the special interests, spread the word that real change is amongst us.
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even with the obvious failure of government to confront unfair trade practices and make america strong, the boys at the top are living so well that they have forgotten the rest of america. i have not. i asked the 98% of americans who never give to a presidential candidate to stand with me. together, we will restore america's promise to our children and grandchildren, we start in new hampshire where the state motto is "live free or die." is a good beginning. may god bless america and each and everyone of you. [applause] i will take general questions
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you have and will be glad to do one-on-one interviews. i did not mean to take your breath away. anybody have a question? yes, ma'am. >> if you are running as a republican, you are running in a party that has said there is no room to raise taxes to increase revenue. do you believe in that? >> i do. i think revenue is down because of the recession. the key to our future is jobs. we need to start growing the middle-class in this country which is in trouble. the unemployment rate is permanent and the welfare state will soon be permanent. we need to grow jobs. that is what i mentioned small businesses. that is what i mentioned the manipulation of the tax code and unfair trade practices.
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that is on the part of a few nations, not most. when a to start growing again and take care of our businesses and i think the revenue will be 18.5% of gdp. that is totally adequate. the way i would get from here to there in terms of the budget is a reduction of spending by 1% of gdp per year for five consecutive years. that will take it down from 25% where it is now. 1% of gdp is $140 billion. >> would you close the carry- forward lou paul? -- loophole? >> absolutely, we have more loopholes then a same woman or man could use a lifetime.
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and they are in infinite detail to a selective view, and work for them, often for doing nothing. [inaudible] in the case that you raised,people on wall street can earn six times the income of a man who has a 401k tax-free by parking yet offshore. there are many loopholes like that. i would work on the tax loopholes to work on the marginal rates. i think we can offer corporations a 15% rate but they have to give up their loopholes. that is the deal. >> you represent yourself as an agent of change. you said 16 years in the private sector, why now?
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>> my view of the problem has left me in the position of waiting for others to address the subject i have waited now for five, six, 10 years. nobody says a thing in washington. i will tell you one story. money to political candidates are running for president four years ago with washington, d.c. addresses, lobbyists, activists, exited the amount of money contributed to those the same candidates by 32 states combined. we are a nation where 98% of the people don't give a nickel, don't give a penny and they are
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shocked when they 1% or 2% that do own the system. i am the only congressman that did not takepac money and i got reelected time after time with no opposition. if you connect with the people on this issue, you will be amazed at what happens. i'd be the governor in louisiana who had never lost a race. he spent $16 million and i spent $1 million and i wanted it can be done. this will be a war between special interests and me. >> you're talking about being a different candidate. if you were not running, could you vote for anyone running in the republican field right now? >> i like them all. i will not answer your question. i remember certain tricks of the trade. i won't mention the tim
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pawlenti or someone i know well and like a lot. i will not mention michelle bachmann. it is fascinating to watch her do -- i have friends there. i regret they have not been able to stand back and see the power of the money. i think they know the power of the money. they are just afraid to run without it. it is the only way. >> why are you launching here today? >> i would give you my campaign managers number and we can talk about strategy. we were going to announce this week -- a couple of weeks ago and we said this week is our time. dartmouth had an invitation for us to be here. it is a great university. i could not think of a better place in new hampshire to start. we had been invited by another
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community down in southern new hampshire. i promised to be in charge their son. it is a methodist church and maybe have a town meeting. we chose dartmouth which fit our schedule and it is a great university. i know a man with two degrees from harvard probably shouldn't say that. >> you plan to relocate here? >> i have already moved to manchester, new hampshire. i live in a small apartment with one of my sons who leaves in the morning to go back to louisiana. i will probably calling you guys for a cup of coffee by the end of the week. i do town hall meetings day after day. i visit people, i am learning new hampshire. >> there is little indication that your approach works. >> i am not taking any lessons from the past. what i like about new hampshire
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is live free or die. [inaudible] i saw john mccain reach across old wounds. he is the man. in the next six months, they will look at the front runners with 70% of the vote and will look at a guy who is 3% known with 3% of the vote and they will say i like what he says. there is no guarantee. it is an election. >> what is your fear if you talk about the corruption of washington building -- what is your fear [inaudible] if somebody like you who was elected does not depth -- get the message across? >> it means that was not right messenger perhaps. it can mean many things. i do think about that. that is an excellent question. i want to set back a reform movement by achieving my goals.
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-- failing to achieve my goals. my goals are already being achieved. there's more talk about campaign reform over the next two months. the other candidates endorsed the ethanol subsidies and i said we will reform the budget will star with ethanol subsidies and we will eliminate all the gas subsidies in louisiana. tim pawlenty was there and newt gingrich and all the better known candidates -- herman cain, rick santorum. they all endorsed the ethanol subsidies. i am the only one who said they would be eliminated and we would eliminate all the gas subsidies in louisiana. they sucked their breath in. all the other candidates now say they will eliminate the subsidies. the rowland campaign is a variety of things.
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you can stand on certain issues and make them be the discussion of our time. you can set an example for other candidates. occasionally,in my experience, i can win with little money, a lot of enthusiasm, and strong principles. i beat an incumbent democratic congressman that way. i beat an incumbent democratic governor that way. we can beat an incumbent democratic president the same way. >> sense to serve in two -- since you served in congress in both branches, what do you think of no tax [inaudible] >> they are political. i was right for the constitutional convention in louisiana and i met an old country man. i am not a lawyer. i'm a businessman. every one else were lawyers who were running. you need a lawyer to write the constitution. i am running in north louisiana.
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i met an old man and he said to be careful. i was making certain commitments about taxes. he said his son was in the legislature and he promised he would not raise taxes. he also promised he would give schoolteacher's the pay they deserve and his first bill in the legislature was to raise taxes to pay school teachers. i think pledges are good and i think if you believe them you should sign them. if you don't think you will follow them, you should not sign. >> what about you and grover norquist? >> i like him. i have not seen him. this is my first day as official candidate. i will read it and probably sign it, but i will read it first. anybody else? >> what about free trade practices? >> i-map common sense guide. -- i am a common sense guy.
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if i went to a factory in china and saw a factory employing nine-year olds, that would not be a fair trade practice. i have been to china many times. not to pick on the nation. i like their people. they are family people. they are hardworking people. the government deliberately manipulate their currency, deliberately allows unfair trade practices can and it has to do with age, working conditions. you can see some cities in china while you are driving toward them 30 miles away. the factories are worse. i am hoping for trade. but it has to be fair. we cannot keep giving our jobs away will certain nations abuse
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their own citizens. maybe we ought to stand up and say no more. that is what i call for on the campaign trail. a good question. do you want to work on the campaign? yes? >> you talked about manufacturing jobs [inaudible] how you justify the significant consumer loss [inaudible] >> there are a lot of factors at work that change in the workplace. we do not make as many buggy whips as we used to. but did not anywhere say guaranteed jobs. jobs must be efficient and effective. effective.


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